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- Text DocumentA Reformulation of the Semantic Gap Problem in Content-Based Image Retrieval Scenarios(COOP 2010: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Designing Cooperative Systems, 2010) Colombino, Tommaso; Martin, Dave; Grasso, Antonietta; Marchesotti, LucaThis paper considers the notion of the “semantic gap” problem – i.e. how to enable a machine to recognize the semantic properties of an image – as it is commonly formulated in the domain of content-based image retrieval. Drawing on ethnographic studies of design professionals who routinely engage in image search tasks we seek to demonstrate the means by which aesthetic and affective concepts become associated with images and elements of images within a cooperative design process of selection, discussion and refinement and how these often do not correspond to the unused semantic tags provided in image libraries. We discuss how we believe the problem of the semantic gap is misconstrued and discuss some of the technology implications of this.
- Text DocumentA Study of Digital Note Sharing in Nomadic Groups(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Smit, Rob; Bogdan, Cristian; Rossitto, Chiara; Eklundh, Kerstin SeverinsonWe report on a study of an Anoto® digital pen and paper usage in three student project groups over three months. We have set up a system including a digital pen and paper, handwriting recognition software, and provided the conditions for wireless note sharing over Bluetooth, and thereafter we let the students use the technology as they went about their activities. Our goal was to evaluate the system's potential for student groups as usage naturally occurred and to assess how the participants integrated the technology in their work and whether it bridged the physical-digital gap. We found that even if the technology works well for individual use, collaborative use of digital pen and paper posed important issues, which we discuss in the light of our notion of nomadicity as a work condition, as well as in the light of the increasingly opportunistic nature of handwriting nowadays.
- Conference PaperAn Activity-Oriented Approach to Visually Structured Knowledge Represenation for Problem-Based Learning in Virtual Learning Environments(COOP 2000: Cooperative Systems Design - The Use of Theories and Models, 2000) Miao, Y.; Holst, S.; Holmer, T.; Fleschutz, J.; Zentel, P.
- Text DocumentAgentville: supporting situational awareness and motivation in call centres(COOP 2012: 10th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems, 2012) Colombino, Tommaso; Castellani, Stefania; Grasso, Antonietta; Willamowski, JuttaCall centres are high pressure work environments where agents work strictly according to shifts and time schedules. Typically, agents are grouped into teams with supervisors from whom they receive only periodic performance feedback. It is a challenge to maintain high motivation and performance amongst the agents in this environment. Agents may lack awareness of their individual status with respect to their objectives, and the performance of their team and the call center as a whole. In this chapter we describe the design of a system that we are building to provide the agents with real-time information on their work environment’s status and on potential improvements in performance, while hopefully also improving their work experience. The solution is based on the introduction in the call centre of some game mechanics whose selection and instantiation has been informed by case studies conducted by the authors
- Conference PaperAMANDA Project: Delegation of Tasks in the Air-Traffic Control Domain(COOP 2002: Cooperative Systems Design - A Challenge of the Mobility Age, 2002) Debernard, Serge; Cathelain, Stéphane; Crévits, Igor; Poulain, Thierry
- Text DocumentAnnotations: A Functionality to support Cooperation, Coordination and Awareness in the Electronic Medical Record(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Bringay, Sandra; Barry, Catherine; Charlet, JeanThe interest of the Electronic Medical Record EMR is from now on obvious. However, Health Professionals still not have at their disposal tools allowing them to support their cooperative practices. In the French DocPatient project, we try to improve practitioners' cooperation when they use the medical documents by implementing a document-based EMR. Our assumption is that a best integration of the way they use these medical documents in the EMR design will improve its utility, its use and its acceptance. In this paper, we show that annotations practices must be transposed in the EMR to reinforce collaboration, coordination and awareness.
- Text DocumentAnticipative Awareness in a Groupware System(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Prinz, Wolfgang; Hinrichs, Elke; Kireyev, IrinaThis work presents a new approach in the area of awareness in groupware. We have made a first step towards supporting both conventional, past-oriented and anticipative, futureoriented awareness by suggesting a conceptual model for defining expectations of actions in a shared workspace and for an automatic check and notification of fulfillment or non-fulfillment of these expectations. Our approach is people-centric and is based on a real-life mental state: the state of anticipating certain events in a workspace. After having studied previous theoretical and practical research on awareness and having analyzed several current collaborative systems, we developed a conceptual model of expectations in shared workspaces. We then implemented our approach as an add-on package to the shared workspace system BSCW. Having evaluated our system with a group of BSCW users we analyzed their feed-back and came to the conclusion that all test users declared the concept of anticipative awareness useful and the implementation on the whole usable. Based on the comments of the test users we propose several improvements of the implementation.
- Text DocumentAppropriation of the Eclipse Ecosystem: Local Integration of Global Network Production(COOP 2010: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Designing Cooperative Systems, 2010) Stevens, Gunnar; Draxler, SebastianEclipse and Mozilla Firefox represent a new type of open software that can be supplemented by manifold extensions, being implemented by independent software vendors and open source projects. Research on such software ecosystems shows that collaboration patterns in the software industry evolve from value chains to value nets. An often ignored side-effect of this development is a vast extent of integration work that needs to be done by users. Taking a user point of view, this paper presents an empirical study on the practices of appropriating the Eclipse ecosystem as an example of radical tailorability, based on new opportunities given by the surrounding ecosystem. We show the practices users have developed to manage the antagonism of maintaining a stable and productive working environment, while simultaneously innovating it. Based on these results, we outline different opportunities to improve flexible software by supporting cooperation among the diverse actors involved, in a network of production and consumption.
- Text DocumentAsynchronous vs. synchronous cooperation in innovative design organization(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Quesada, Thierry Février; Darses, FrançoiseTeamwork collaborative activities involve both asynchronous and synchronous cooperation. In this paper, we describe how these cooperation modes are performed during an innovative design process in the automotive industry. Asynchronous cooperation is performed through exchanges on a portal, while synchronous cooperation occurs in face-to-face meetings. We compare the cooperation modes, regarding the team’s tasks. It is highlighted that synchronous cooperation marked out the project course, and is expanded through asynchronous cooperation. But some tasks are preferably performed on asynchronous mode, such as those involved in project steering. Asynchronous cooperation better supports conveyance communication processes (sharing out information), rather than convergence communication processes (shared meaning of design). In contrast, synchronous cooperation offers efficient push and pull of information, making use of both conveyance and convergence.
- Conference PaperAudio Satellites: Overhearing Everyday Life(COOP 2016: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems, 2016) Breinbjerg, Morten; Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten; Fritsch, Jonas; Kirkegaard, Jonas R.The project “Audio Satellites – overhearing everyday life” consists of a number of mobile listening devices (audio satellites) from which sound is distributed in real time to a server and made available for listening and mixing through a web interface. The audio satellites can either be carried around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web interface, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life in a collaborative and creative process of active listening.
- Conference PaperBackdoor Creativity: Collaborative Creativity in Technology Supported Teams(COOP 2004: Cooperative Systems Design - Scenario-Based Design of Collaborative Systems, 2004) Sundholm, Hillevi; Artman, Henrik; Ramberg, Robert
- Conference PaperBeatfield: An Open-Meaning Audiovisual Exploration(COOP 2016: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems, 2016) Masu, Raul; Conci, Andrea; Menestrina, Zeno; Morreale, Fabio; De Angeli, AntonellaThis paper presents Beatfield, a musical installation that allows players to explore an audiovisual landscape by positioning tangible objects on an augmented game board. The underlying idea of the installation was the proposition of an artefact that could encourage heterogeneous interpretations. Beatfield had to offer a multitude of interpretations and ways of appropriating the system; there would be not a right or wrong way to play with it. To this end, the design of the installation integrated related work on open-ended interaction, ambiguity, and appropriation with enigmatic aesthetics, ambiguous interaction strategies, and unpredictable mapping between user input and audiovisual output. The results collected from a user study confirmed the potential of the installation to stimulate a variety of different experiences and interaction strategies.
- Text DocumentBetween casual commitment and cross-media articulation – the faith of the Napkin(From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, 2008) Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja BechmannThis paper presents an analysis of the Napkin, a collaborative technology designed to support news reporters in their struggle to handle the integrated production of news stories to multiple media platforms. The Napkin was abandoned while we studied it, and this raised the questions of what was wrong with the Napkin, and why did it fail? The Napkin suffered many of the problems known to CSCW: It lacked reciprocity of visibility and commitment between reporters and editors
- Text DocumentBeyond Electronic Patient's File: Assisting Conversations in a Healthcare Network(COOP 2006: Cooperative Systems Design - Seamless Integration of Artifacts and Conversations - Enhanced Concepts of Infrastructure for Communication, 2006) Bénard, Valérie; Lewkowicz, Myriam; Zacklad, ManuelHealthcare networks have been created to meet new health requirements. This new mode of organization gives healthcare professionals with different competences overall patient coverage. The aim of this study was to define tools supporting cooperation between these professionals. An ethnographic study on a healthcare network carried out during a period of one year has helped to understand how these networks function and what their requirements are. In this paper, we present the network studied, and describe a theoretical framework which can be used to analyze its activities; we focus in particular on the transactions taking place during face-to-face meetings, and we conclude that in order to cooperate efficiently, professionals need a coordination tool which is more than just an electronic patient file. We end this paper by suggesting guidelines for computer-supported cooperative activities in the field of healthcare networks.
- Text DocumentBug Reproduction: A Collaborative Practice within Software Maintenance Activities(COOP 2014 - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems, 2014) Vyas, Dhaval; Fritz, Thomas; Shepherd, DavidSoftware development settings provide a great opportunity for CSCW researchers to study collaborative work. In this paper, we explore a specific work practice called bug reproduction that is a part of the software bug-fixing process. Bug reproduction is a highly collaborative process by which software developers attempt to locally replicate the ‘environment’ within which a bug was originally encountered. Customers, who encounter bugs in their everyday use of systems, play an important role in bug reproduction as they provide useful information to developers, in the form of steps for reproduction, software screenshots, trace logs, and other ways to describe a problem. Bug reproduction, however, poses major hurdles in software maintenance as it is often challenging to replicate the contextual aspects that are at play at the customers’ end. To study the bug reproduction process from a human-centered perspective, we carried out an ethnographic study at a multinational engineering company. Using semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire and half-a-day observation of sixteen software developers working on different software maintenance projects, we studied bug reproduction. In this paper, we present a holistic view of bug reproduction practices from a real-world setting and discuss implications for designing tools to address the challenges developers face during bug reproduction.
- Text DocumentChange Awareness for Collaborative Video Annotation(COOP 2010: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Designing Cooperative Systems, 2010) Hofmann, Cristian; Boettcher, Uwe; Fellner, Dieter W.Collaborative Video Annotation is a broad field of research and is widely used in productive environments. While it is easy to follow changes in small systems with few users, keeping in touch with all changes in large environments can easily get overwhelming. The easiest way and a first approach to prevent the users from getting lost is to show them all changes in an appropriate way. This list of changes can also become very large when many contributors add new information to shared data resources. To prevent users from getting lost while having a list of changes, this paper introduces a way to subscribe to parts of the system and only to have the relevant changes shown. To achieve this goal, the framework provides an approach to check the relevance of changes, which is not trivial in three dimensional spaces, and to be accumulated for later reference by the subscribing user. The benefit for users is to need fewer time to be up-to-date and to have more time for applying own changes.
- Conference PaperCharacterisation of Collaborative Design and Interaction Management Activities in a Distant Engineering Design Situation(COOP 2004: Cooperative Systems Design - Scenario-Based Design of Collaborative Systems, 2004) Détienne, Françoise; Boujut, Jean-François; Hohmann, Betty