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- ReportComputable Models and Prototypes of Interaction(1994) Benford, Steve; Bullock, Adrian; Fuchs, Ludwin; Mariani, JohnThis document forms Deliverable 4.2. of the COMIC project. The input for this deliverable comes from two tasks within workpackage 4, Task 4.2 “Computer modelling and prototyping of interaction within virtual computer spaces” and Task 4.3 “Modelling, prototyping and assessment of multi-user interaction with and through shared artifacts”. Each of these tasks is addressed by a separate part of the deliverable, although this is not to say that they present unrelated work. To the contrary there has been significant cooperation between the partners involved in both of these tasks. The first portion of the deliverable focuses on the development and prototyping of a computational model of interaction within virtual computer spaces. The second portion of the deliverable presents the work undertaken within task 4.3 of the COMIC project. The work described in this section of the deliverable focuses on the sharing of objects across a community of users.
- ReportComputational Mechanisms of Interaction for CSCW(1993) Simone, Carla; Schmidt, KjeldThe present report documents the research activities undertaken in Task 3.2 of the COMIC project. The objective of the three years of research of Strand 3 is to develop a conceptual foundation for designing computational mechanisms of interaction for CSCW applications that can support the complex task of articulating distributed cooperative activities. The report consists of three parts: Based on a survey of social science studies of cooperative work, Part 1 outlines a conceptual framework for the development of the concept of mechanisms of interaction. Part 3 presents the comprehensive analysis of CSCW systems (applications, shells, models) that have been analyzed in order to unravel and assess the underlying mechanisms of interaction. Part 2 brings the two bodies of evidence together, identifies requirements for mechanisms of interaction, and outlines the conceptual foundation for the design of mechanisms of interaction in CSCW systems.
- ReportA Computational Model of Organizational Context in CSCW(1995) Fuchs, Ludwin; Prinz, WolfgangThis is Deliverable 1.3 of the COMIC project. It gives an account of a computational model for organizational context. The deliverable contains an introduction followed by the presentation of the reasearch that has been done during the last year in the project. This research is described and exemplified over nine further chapters, that focus on theoretical perspectives and fieldwork investigations as well as computational models and their application.
- Text DocumentComputer Networking as a Vehicle for Citizen Participation: A Case Study of the White House Conference on Productivity(Readings of Workshop on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1984, 1984) Hiltz, Starr RoxanneIn The Network Nation, the possibility of dispersed citizens using computer mediated communication to discuss matters of political policy and to formulate recommendations or coordination political action was discussed. In the Spring of 1983 such a scenario was enacted. At that time, the American Productivity Center (APC) in Houston, Texas, organized and coordinated and effort to use EIES (the Electronic Information Exchange System) as a means of formulating private sector recommendations for improving productivity in the U.S., to be presented at the White House Conference on Productivity the following fall. About 200 people worked together in seven different task groups to produce the recommendations. This is a report on the computer conferences and on the reactions of the participants to theier experiences. The data presented here were gathered through participant observation in one of the working groups, (including attendance at the meetings in Houston and Pittsburgh); by the use of the Survey system on EIES to administer and online survey to the participants; and by use of a conference analysis program on EIES which counts amount of participation by each member of a conference.
- ReportA Conceptual Framework for Describing Organizations(1994) Bowers, JohnThis is Deliverable 1.2 of the COMIC project. It gives an account of the framework for describing organizations that we are working with. After an introductory chapter which clarifies the status of the framework and the relation that the current work has to past and future work in COMIC, the framework is described and exemplified over nine further chapters and two appendices. The framework attempts to recognise the various theoretical perspectives and orientations pursued in COMIC and integrate them with the perspectives which are guiding technical development. The framework is exemplified through a series of field studies and prototypes alongside theoretical discussion.
- Text DocumentCOST-14 CoTech 1994-96 Final Report(1996) Schmidt, KjeldThis report documents the work and achievements of the COST-14 Action on Cooperation Technology (CoTech), 1994–1996. Supported by EU’s COST program, under the COST-14 Action and under the COST-14 Coordinating Agency (contract number COST-CT94-0082-DK).
- ReportCSCW Requirements Development(1994)This deliverable considers the work of the COMIC project on involving ethnographic studies of work into the development of CSCW systems. The particular focus of our work has been to incorporate ethnographic studies of work into the general set of resources drawn upon by the designers of cooperative systems. This deliverable presents the framework for the analysis and presentation of ethnographic material across a series of fieldstudies. The work on the framework is complemented by an ethnographic handbook that considers best practice in CSCW systems design.
- ReportDemonstrator prototypes of Computational Mechanisms of Interaction(1995) Navarro, LeandroThe present report documents the research activities undertaken in Task 3.3 of the COMIC project. The objective of the three years of research of Strand 3 is to de- velop a conceptual foundation for designing computational mecha- nisms of interaction for CSCW applications that can support the complex task of articulating distributed cooperative activities. The present deliverable presents various prototype systems based on the architecture and notation for constructing computational mechanisms of interaction. Each contribution focuses on one aspect of the work presented in previous deliverables. Finally, reference material and usage scenarios for each prototype are included.
- Text DocumentDevelopment of Interllectual Capability(Readings of Workshop on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1984, 1984) Jaques, ElliottThis paper is concerned with the subject of the ability of individuals to engage in goal-directed behavior in problem-solving and in everyday work. It concentrates upon one aspect only of this ability; namely, that of intellectual capability - or what tends currently to be referrred to as cognitive processes. It addresses a number of connected issues: first, what is the nature of cognitive processes, defined here as the processes by which individuals form or pattern the world which they construct and work with?; second, how is it possible to measure the scale or degree of complexity of cogrnitive processes - defined here as cognitive power - and by the same token, to measure the size of the world which a person can construct and live in?; and thirs, what is the pattern of development of the cognitive power of an individual - how does it mature and grow?
- ReportField Studies and CSCW(1994)The thrust of this Strand of the COMIC Project is mainly methodological in investigating aspects of the relationship between the social analysis of work settings and the systems development context. It has been assumed throughout the work that real world CSCW systems will be large scale and, thus, need be produced by appropriate software engineering processes. In addition, it has also recognised that CSCW raises special problems regarding the effective analysis of the social organisation of work settings and that among the more promising methods in this regard, namely ethnography, does not sit easily with many of the current methods of requirements elicitation and system development.
- ReportInforming CSCW System Requirements(1993)The thrust of this Strand of the COMIC Project is mainly methodological in investigating aspects of the relationship between the social analysis of work settings and the systems development context. It has been assumed throughout the work that real world CSCW systems will be large scale and, thus, need be produced by appropriate software engineering processes. In addition, it has also recognised that CSCW raises special problems regarding the effective analysis of the social organisation of work settings and that among the more promising methods in this regard, namely ethnography, does not sit easily with many of the current methods of requirements elicitation and system development.
- ReportAn Integrated View of COMIC(1994) Rodden, TomThis deliverable considers the general nature of the COMIC project. It presents the different contributions brought to the project and the various integrated results which have emerged. The deliverable also reflects on the challenges of integration set out in the project from the outset and how this integration has manifest itself during the project.
- Test/Journal ArticleInterview with Jay Nunamaker on ‘‘Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing’’(Business & Information Systems Engineering, Vol. 57, 2015) Briggs, Robert O.Jay F. Nunamaker Jr. is Regents Professor and Sold- wedel Professor at the University of Arizona. He founded the MIS department at University of Arizona in 1974, and the Center for the Management of Information in 1985. Dr. Nunamaker has over 40 years of experience in analyzing, designing, testing, evaluating, and developing information systems. His multidisciplinary research is built on a foundation of computer supported collaboration, decision support, deception detection and determination of intent. Nunamaker’s research has led to major breakthroughs in collaboration, decision support systems, and automated systems analysis and design. He is known for developing generalizable solutions to important classes of unsolved real-world problems, and testing his systems with scientific rigor. He was elected a fellow of the Association for Information Systems in 2000, and in 2002, he was the re- cipient of the LEO (lifetime achievement) Award from the Association of Information Systems, at ICIS in Barcelona, Spain. In a 2005 article in Communications of the Association for Information Systems, he was recognized as one of the most productive information systems researchers, ranking no. 4–6 for the period from 1991–2003 based on the number of papers in top IS journals. He received his Ph.D. in systems engineering and operations research from Case Western Reserve University.
- Test/Journal ArticleInterview with Jonathan Grudin on ‘‘Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing’’(Business & Information Systems Engineering, Vol. 57, 2015) Koch, Michael; Schwabe, GerhardJonathan Grudin is a Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research in the fields of Human–Computer Interaction (HCI) and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Grudin is a pioneer of the field of CSCW and one of its most prolific contributors. He was awarded the inaugural CSCW Lasting Impact Award in 2014 on the basis of this work. Prior to working at Microsoft Research, Grudin was a Professor of Information and Computer Science at the University of California, Irvine from 1991 to 1998. His career has also spanned numerous institutions. He worked at Wang Laboratories as a Computer Programmer (1974–1975 and 1983–1986). He was a Visiting Scientist in the Psychology and Artificial Intelligence Laboratories at MIT (1976–1979) and then a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow at the Medical Research Council’s Applied Psychology Unit (now known as the Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit (1982–1983). He spent from 1986–1989 at the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation before taking a series of faculty positions (including visiting professorships) at Aarhus University (1989–1991), the University of California, Irvine (1991–1998), Keio University (1995), and the University of Oslo (1997).
- Test/Journal ArticleInterviews with Volker Wulf and Myriam Lewkowicz on ‘‘The European Tradition of CSCW’’(Business & Information Systems Engineering, Vol. 60, 2018) Richter, Alexander; Koch, MichaelIn 2015, BISE featured a special issue on “CSCW & Social Computing”. Whereas the special issue gave a global view of the field, the featured interviews with Jonathan Grudin and Jay Nunamaker were mainly focused on the American perspective on the field. However, there is a European research tradition which is rather practice based and tries to understand and support cooperation in the real world by means of IT artifacts, in teams, organizations, or communities. This tradition which nowadays spans the whole world is institutionally represented by the European Society for Socially Embedded Technologies (EUSSET), which organizes the annual “European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work” (ECSCW), the biannual Conference “Communities & Technologies” (C&T), and is responsible for the Journal on CSCW (JCSCW). In this issue we want to enrich the material presented in the 2015 special issue with interviews with the current and the future chairs of EUSSET – about the past and the future of the European tradition of CSCW.
- ReportIssues of Supporting Organizational Context in CSCW Systems(1993) Bannon, Liam; Schmidt, KjeldThis report documents the work in Strand 1 of the COMIC project concerning the nature and support of what has been termed “organizational context” in CSCW systems. The report provides a va- riety of approaches to understanding concepts of organization and context, and their implications for computer support.
- ReportA Notation for Computational Mechanisms of Interaction(1994) Simone, Carla; Schmidt, KjeldThe present report documents the research activities undertaken in Task 3.2 of the COMIC project. The objective of the three years of research of Strand 3 is to de- velop a conceptual foundation for designing computational mecha- nisms of interaction for CSCW applications that can support the complex task of articulating distributed cooperative activities. The present deliverable argues that a common computational notation for constructing different types of computational mecha- nisms of interaction is feasible and specifies a three level architecture by means of which the notation in principle makes it possible to construct mechanisms of interaction that are malleable to any degree deemed appropriate for any particular setting.
- Text DocumentAn Office Information System based on Intelligent Forms(Readings of Workshop on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1984, 1984) Ellis, Clarence A.This paper summarizes some design ideas and implementation alternatives for a distributed Office Information System (abbreviated OIS herein). Our design is aimed toward efficient and elegant distributed implementations which support facilities such as intelligent forms, dynamic coupling of migrant processes, and consistent recomilation of system components during execution. Explanation of and rationale for these facilities is presented within this memo. Rationale is based upon years of study and modeling of offices, and design, implementation and measurement of prototype OISs within the Office Research Group at Xerox PARC.
- Text DocumentAn Office Study: Its Implications on the Understanding of Organizations(Readings of Workshop on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1984, 1984) Barber, Gerald R.The results of an office study are presented. The goals of the study were to determine some parameters of the problem solving and knowledge level processing that occurs in a particular organization. The problem solving processes in the organization are described and the relationship between these problem solving processes and some characteristics of the knowledge used to solve the problems is discussed. In addition we describe the impact exceptions have on the evolution of the organization and identify two mechanisms that help the organization adapt to change. The implications of the results of the study on the understandig of organizations are discussed. Areas of further study are described.