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- Journal ArticleA Case Study of How a Reduction in Explicit Leadership Changed an Online Game Community(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 26, No. 0, 43070) McEwan, Gregor; Gutwin, CarlLeadership is considered critical to virtual community success. Leaders engage in important community activities such as encouraging members and building social structure. These potential benefits, however, have rarely been empirically tested. We were presented with an opportunity to explore this issue while studying an online board-and-card-game community. During our study, the community experienced a major change in leadership when the founder – and formal leader – decided to substantially reduce his involvement in the site. This provided us with the rare opportunity to carry out a case study of leadership reduction in a real-world community. To look at the effects of leadership on community behaviour, we analysed 16 months of activity logs, supported by interviews, to compare the community before, during, and after the founder’s withdrawal. We observed strong variability in the effects of a leadership reduction – some results were in line with the “leadership hypothesis,” but others were unexpected. In some cases, we found evidence that reducing formal leadership can have negative effects on the success of the community; but in other cases, we found surprising sources of resilience to the reduction in leadership activities. Our study is the first to look at the details of how leadership (and a reduction in this role) affects several types of sub-community within a board-and-card game site, and the first to consider some of the factors that lead to differences in the effects of leadership reduction. Overall, we found that negative effects on sub-communities were closely tied to the specific activities that the leader provided, and the degree to which he was the only person able to provide those roles. The broad strokes of this finding agree with the leadership hypothesis, but there are several unexpected elements within the main story: the negative effects were less drastic than we anticipated, and all of the sub-communities (even the most dependent) survived the transition. The strong resilience of some of the sub-communities seems to be connected to their ability to “fall back” to a foundation of shared activity (i.e., game play) – an idea that has been introduced in earlier work but never studied empirically. This research helps designers to understand the complexities of leadership in online communities, providing an important foundation for developing and supporting online groups.
- Journal ArticleA Citation Analysis of Influences on Collaborative Computing Research(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 12, No. 3, 37865) Holsapple, Clyde W.; Luo, WenhongCollaborative computing has emerged as a majorsubject of study within the field of businesscomputing. It is concerned with the use ofcomputers to facilitate or enable the work ofmultiple participants engaged in collaborativeventures. Researchers and educators canbenefit from an analysis that identifiesjournals with greatest impacts on developmentof the collaborative computing subject area. The benefits include an appreciation of the topoutlets for publishing and the leading sourcesfor monitoring development in collaborativecomputing research, plus the most importantreference discipline journals for findingsupport for these developments. This studyemploys a citation analysis methodology todetermine the journals that have had thegreatest influence on multiparticipant,collaborative computing research. Over 19,000citations from four base journals across an8-year period are collected and analyzed.
- Journal ArticleA Collaborative Schema Integration System(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 6, No. 1, 35490) Beynon-Davies, P.; Bonde, L.; McPhee, D.; Jones, C.B.Conceptual modelling as applied to database development can be described as a two stage process: schema modelling followed by schema integration. Schema modelling is the process of transforming individual user requirements into a conceptual schema: an implementation-independent map of data requirements. Schema integration is the process of combining individual conceptual schemas into a single, unified schema. Single-user tools for schema modelling have enjoyed much success partly because the process of schema modelling has become relatively well formalised. Although a number of formal approaches to conducting schema integration have been proposed, it appears that schema integration tools have not enjoyed the same level of success. This we attribute not so much to the problem of formalisation but to the inherent collaborative nature of schema integration work. This paper first discusses the importance of collaboration to schema integration work. It then describes SISIBIS, a demonstrator system employing the IBIS (Issue Based Information System) scheme to support collaborative database design.
- Journal ArticleA comment on Lucy Suchman's “do categories have politics?”(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 3, No. 1, 1995) Randall, D. W.
- Journal ArticleA Coordination Language For Building Collaborative Applications(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 9, No. 1, 36586) Cortes, MauricioA collaborative application must support theinteraction of a group of users that share someinformation and have common or complementary goals.Many conflicting situations can arise during acomputer supported meeting when two or moreparticipants access this shared information. Inaddition to data consistency issues (data-levelconflicts), collaborative applications must addressthe specification of interaction rules to control theway users can interact through the application(user-level conflicts) with each other. Theseinteraction rules can vary from session to session,and even during the same session, as users need toestablish new ways to interact with each other. We have developed a coordination programming languagethat helps programmers build new collaborativeapplications or reengineer single-user applications.This language allows programmers to decouplecoordination from computational issues. While acomputational program describes the information thatis being shared, a coordination program determines howa group of users can share this information. Given acomputational program, developers can build multiplecoordination programs. End-users will be able toselect the coordination program that best suit theirneeds to run their collaborative session. A language runtime interpreter executes thesecoordination programs. This interpreter controls theexecution of user actions that are applied to the setof shared objects. Finally, new coordination programscan be loaded in the runtime interpreter at any time,allowing end-users to change the interaction rulesduring an ongoing collaborative session. A descriptionof the runtime interpreter and its implementation isincluded.
- Journal ArticleA Descriptive Framework of Workspace Awareness for Real-Time Groupware(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 11, 37500) Gutwin, Carl; Greenberg, SaulSupporting awareness of others is an idea that holds promise forimproving the usability of real-time distributed groupware.However, there is little principled information available aboutawareness that can be used by groupware designers. In thisarticle, we develop a descriptive theory of awareness for thepurpose of aiding groupware design, focusing on one kind of groupawareness called workspace awareness . We focus on how smallgroups perform generation and execution tasks in medium-sizedshared workspaces – tasks where group members frequently shiftbetween individual and shared activities during the work session.We have built a three-part framework that examines the concept ofworkspace awareness and that helps designers understand theconcept for purposes of designing awareness support in groupware.The framework sets out elements of knowledge that make upworkspace awareness, perceptual mechanisms used to maintainawareness, and the ways that people use workspace awareness incollaboration. The framework also organizes previous research onawareness and extends it to provide designers with a vocabularyand a set of ground rules for analysing work situations, forcomparing awareness devices, and for explaining evaluationresults. The basic structure of the theory can be used todescribe other kinds of awareness that are important to theusability of groupware.
- Journal ArticleA Historical View of Context(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 13, 38200) Chalmers, MatthewThis paper examines a number of the approaches, origins and ideals of context-aware systems design, looking particularly at the way that history influences what we do in our ongoing activity. As a number of sociologists and philosophers have pointed out, past social interaction, as well as past use of the heterogeneous mix of media, tools and artifacts that we use in our everyday activity, influence our ongoing interaction with the people and media at hand. We suggest that one’s experience and history is thus part of one’s current context, with patterns of use temporally and subjectively combining and interconnecting different media as well as different modes of use of those media. One such mode of use is transparent use, put forward by Weiser as ubicomp’s design ideal. One theoretical finding is that this design ideal is unachievable or incomplete because transparent and more focused analytical use are interdependent, affecting and feeding into each other through one’s experience and history. Using these theoretical points, we discuss a number of context-aware system designs that make good use of history in supporting ongoing user activity.
- Journal ArticleA Historical View of Studies of Women’s Work(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 30, No. 2, 2021) Balka, Ellen; Wagner, InaThis paper places observational studies of women’s work in historical perspective. We present some of the very early studies (carried out in the period from 1900 to 1930), as well as several examples of fieldwork-based studies of women’s work, undertaken from different perspectives and in varied locations between the 1960s and the mid 1990s. We outline and discuss several areas of thought which have influenced studies of women’s work - the automation debate; the focus on the skills women need in their work; labour market segregation; women’s health; and technology and the redesign of work – and the research methods they used. Our main motivation in this paper is threefold: to demonstrate how fieldwork based studies which have focussed on women’s work have attempted to locate women’s work in a larger context that addresses its visibility and value; to provide a thematic historiography of studies of women’s work, thereby also demonstrating the value of an historical perspective, and a means through which to link it to contemporary themes; and to increase awareness of varied methodological perspectives on how to study work.
- Journal ArticleA Knowledge-based Approach to Handling Exceptions in Workflow Systems(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 36831) Klein, Mark; Dellarocas, ChrysanthosThis paper describes a novel knowledge-based approachfor helping workflow process designers andparticipants better manage the exceptions (deviationsfrom an ideal collaborative work process caused byerrors, failures, resource or requirements changesetc.) that can occur during the enactment of aworkflow. This approach is based on exploiting ageneric and reusable body of knowledge concerning whatkinds of exceptions can occur in collaborative workprocesses, and how these exceptions can handled(detected, diagnosed and resolved). This work buildsupon previous efforts from the MIT Process Handbookproject and from research on conflict management incollaborative design.
- Journal ArticleA Light Workflow Management System Using Simple Process Models(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 36831) Agostini, Alessandra; de Michelis, GiorgioWorkflow management systems are considereda hot technology. Nevertheless, up to now they havenot had the diffusion other packages such asproductivity tools, E-mail systems and groupwareplatforms have. We believe that this fact is due tothe many limitations of current workflow technology(weak support for changes; complex exception handlingmechanisms; limited openness to and integrability withother system components;...) and that radically newworkflow management systems should be designed anddeveloped in order to offer adequate products to themarket. In this paper, we outline the main innovativefeatures of the workflow management component of theMilano system making it highly flexible and adaptable.Particular attention is paid to its modellingframework, which is based on a class of net systemswell supported by efficient algorithms, and to theservices it offers to both workflow designers andactors. The most relevant aspects of the MILANOworkflow management system are also illustratedthrough a realistic example.
- Journal ArticleA Look at Tokyo Youth at Leisure: Towards the Design of New Media to Support Leisure Outings(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 16, 2007) Schiano, Diane J.; Elliott, Ame; Bellotti, VictoriaIn this paper we present a set of studies designed to explore Japanese young people’s practices around leisure outings (how they are discovered, planned, coordinated, and conducted), and the resources they use to support these practices. Tokyo youth have a wealth of leisure opportunities and tools to choose from; they are technologically savvy, and are in the vanguard of those for whom the new mobile Internet technologies are available. We characterize typical leisure outings described by our study participants, how they are structured, and the tools used to support them. We found that discovery of leisure options tends to occur serendipitously, often through personal recommendations from friends and family. For leisure research and planning, the Internet is the tool of choice, but accessed via PC, not the mobile phone (or “keitai”), which is primarily used to communicate and coordinate, not to search for information. These and related findings suggest some emerging issues and opportunities for the design of future leisure support technologies.
- Journal ArticleA Methodological Framework for Socio-Cognitive Analyses of Collaborative Design of Open Source Software(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 15, No. 0, 38869) Sack, Warren; Détienne, Françoise; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Mahendran, Dilan; Barcellini, FloreOpen Source Software (OSS) development challenges traditional software engineering practices. In particular, OSS projects are managed by a large number of volunteers, working freely on the tasks they choose to undertake. OSS projects also rarely rely on explicit system-level design, or on project plans or schedules. Moreover, OSS developers work in arbitrary locations and collaborate almost exclusively over the Internet, using simple tools such as email and software code tracking databases (e.g. CVS). All the characteristics above make OSS development akin to weaving a tapestry of heterogeneous components. The OSS design process relies on various types of actors: people with prescribed roles, but also elements coming from a variety of information spaces (such as email and software code). The objective of our research is to understand the specific hybrid weaving accomplished by the actors of this distributed, collective design process. This, in turn, challenges traditional methodologies used to understand distributed software engineering: OSS development is simply too “fibrous” to lend itself well to analysis under a single methodological lens. In this paper, we describe the methodological framework we articulated to analyze collaborative design in the Open Source world. Our framework focuses on the links between the heterogeneous components of a project’s hybrid network. We combine ethnography, text mining, and socio-technical network analysis and visualization to understand OSS development in its totality. This way, we are able to simultaneously consider the social, technical, and cognitive aspects of OSS development. We describe our methodology in detail, and discuss its implications for future research on distributed collective practices.
- Journal ArticleA Multi-Versioning Scheme for Intention Preservation in Collaborative Editing Systems*(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 17, 2008) Xue, Liyin; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Zhang, KangAlthough the multi-version approach to consistency maintenance has been widely discussed and implemented in database systems, version control systems, and asynchronous groupware systems, its potential in real-time groupware systems is largely unexplored. Intention preservation is an important aspect of consistency maintenance in real-time collaborative editing systems, where multiple users cooperate with each other by concurrently editing the same document. The multi-version approach is supposed to be able to preserve individual users’ concurrent conflicting intentions. In this article, we propose a new multi-versioning scheme that can preserve not only concurrent conflicting intentions but also contextual intentions while achieving convergence of the document under editing. By extending an existing multi-versioning scheme to a general one that specifies the conditions for convergence, we decouple the discussion of convergence from that of intention preservation. By constraining the general scheme, we arrive at the novel scheme that guarantees to preserve users’ intentions. The correctness of the scheme has been formally verified. The design of an algorithm for consistent version composition and identification has been discussed in detail.
- Journal ArticleA new architecture for a collaborative authoring system(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 2, No. 3, 1993) McAlpine, Keith; Golder, PaulMuch research has occurred in recent years detailing computer systems which support collaborative writing. In this paper we describe a collaborative authoring system capable of handling both synchronous and asynchronous communication between authors, based upon a writing model of coordination, writing, annotation, consolidation and negotiation. This assumes that the negotiation aspects play a major role in the collaborative process. A model linking the logical structure of documents and author roles is also established, based on the Standard Generalized Markup Language.
- Journal ArticleA Patchwork Planet Integration and Cooperation in Hospitals(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 12, No. 1, 2003) Ellingsen, Gunnar; Monteiro, EricThe `seamless' integration of a collectionof information systems has been recognised asvital in promoting and realising thecollaborative aspects of work. This emphasis onthe collaborative role of integrationsupplements other studies in CSCW focusing onmore singular tools for collaboration.Empirically, we analyse the design and use ofan electronic patient record system (EPR) inlarge hospitals in Norway. We discuss theconditions for and types of integration of EPRwith the host of related information systems inhospitals. We formulate design principles forthe integration of collaborative informationsystems based on a pragmatic study of theproductive role of redundant, fragmented andambiguous information.
- Journal ArticleA Postphenomenological Perspective On the Changing Nature of Work(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 32, No. 2, 2023) Sergeeva, Anastasia V.In this essay, I take a postphenomenological perspective on tracing work transformation during the pandemic, arguing that this perspective helps develop novel sensitivities to the nature of work. Postphenomenology brings into high relief the view on work as reliant on sensory performances and embodied relations, complementing already rich accounts of work being reliant on discursive interactions, social order, and spatiality. The focus of postphenomenology on ‘non-neutrality’ and the multistability of technology provides a useful lens for revealing a multiplicity of changes, encompassing both augmentations and reductions of work experiences and evaluating their consequences for the actors involved. Finally, its attention to the transparency of technology amidst the embodied experiences gives a handle on the role of materiality in the performance of work and may be taken up as informing design efforts. A case study vignette of physiotherapy work during lockdown is offered as an illustration of applying some of the postphenomenological ideas.
- Journal ArticleA Preface to ‘Infrastructuring and Collaborative Design’(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 26, No. 0, 42826) Pipek, Volkmar; Karasti, Helena; Bowker, Geoffrey C.
- Journal ArticleA prototype of an integrated coordination support system(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 2, No. 4, 1993) Agostini, Alessandra; Michelis, Giorgio; Patriarca, Stefano; Tinini, RenataUTUCS is a system for supporting a group of people (an office, a team, etc.) interconnected through a communication network in handling conversations carried on through different communication media. It has been developed with the aim of providing a good coordination support system that pairs the best computer-based tool a group may have in any situation (dispersed versus non dispersed, synchronous versus non synchronous) with the ability to switch from one to another, maintaining integrated and linked the information it creates. As UTUCS is a general system devoted to integrating conversations independently of the communication media exploited, it has been designed in such a way that it can be enhanced by developing a module for any communication medium that can be effectively supported by a computer network. Up to now the Electronic Mail module, the Face to Face Couple Colloquies module, and the Face to Face Group Meetings module have been implemented.
- Journal ArticleA Review of 25 Years of CSCW Research in Healthcare: Contributions, Challenges and Future Agendas(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 22, 41487) Fitzpatrick, Geraldine; Ellingsen, GunnarCSCW as a field has been concerned since its early days with healthcare, studying how healthcare work is collaboratively and practically achieved and designing systems to support that work. Reviewing literature from the CSCW Journal and related conferences where CSCW work is published, we reflect on the contributions that have emerged from this work. The analysis illustrates a rich range of concepts and findings towards understanding the work of healthcare but the work on the larger policy level is lacking. We argue that this presents a number of challenges for CSCW research moving forward: in having a greater impact on larger-scale health IT projects; broadening the scope of settings and perspectives that are studied; and reflecting on the relevance of the traditional methods in this field - namely workplace studies - to meet these challenges.