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- Text Document2nd Workshop on Studying Technical Mechanisms for Supporting Sharing Communities(Proceedings of 19th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2021) Pakusch, Christina; Boden, Alexander; Korsgaard, Henrik; Lewkowicz, Myriam; Avram, Gabriela; Bødker, SusanneSharing economies enabled by technical platforms have been studied regarding their economic, legal, and social effects, as well as with regard to their possible influences on CSCW topics such as work, collaboration, and trust. While a lot current research is focusing on the sharing economy and related communities, there is little work addressing the phenomenon from a socio-technical point of view. Our workshop is meant to address this gap. Building on research themes and discussion from last year’s ECSCW, we seek to engage deeper with topics such as novel socio-technical approaches for enabling sharing communities, discussing issues around digital consumer and worker protection, as well as emerging challenges and opportunities of existing platforms and approaches.
- Conference Paper3D Printing with Marginalized Children—An Exploration in a Palestinian Refugee Camp(ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2015) Stickel, Oliver; Hornung, Dominik; Aal, Konstantin; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, VolkerWe work with a multi-national network of computer clubs for families and children called come_IN. In two such clubs (located in Palestinian refugee camps in the West Bank), we worked with children on playful approaches concerning 3D modeling and 3D printing within a five-week, qualitative field study. Based on this study, we report on the achievements as well as on the difficulties of digital fabrication and of “Making” in developmental and educational contexts. The benefits are related to an overarching theme of self-expression where the main focus was on dimensions as playfulness, approachable complexity, individualization, immediacy and physicality and collaboration as well as motivation. The problematic aspects were mostly related to socio-technical limitations concerning the themes of orientation and camera control, the lack of coordination and collaboration features, usability and UX issues as well as the construction and limitations of current 3D printers. Based on those findings, we have derived implications for the design and the appropriation of future systems for digital fabrication with children, especially in developmental/educational settings, such as improvements of their collaboration support or better feedback mechanisms regarding the system status towards the end user.
- Conference PaperA Case Study of How a Reduction in Explicit Leadership Changed an Online Game Community(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) McEwan, Gregor; Gutwin, CarlLeadership is considered critical to virtual community success. Leaders engage in important community activities such as encouraging members and building social structure. These potential benefits, however, have rarely been empirically tested. We were presented with an opportunity to explore this issue while studying an online board-and-card-game community. During our study, the community experienced a major change in leadership when the founder – and formal leader – decided to substantially reduce his involvement in the site. This provided us with the rare opportunity to carry out a case study of leadership reduction in a real-world community. To look at the effects of leadership on community behaviour, we analysed 16 months of activity logs, supported by interviews, to compare the community before, during, and after the founder’s withdrawal. We observed strong variability in the effects of a leadership reduction – some results were in line with the “leadership hypothesis,” but others were unexpected. In some cases, we found evidence that reducing formal leadership can have negative effects on the success of the community; but in other cases, we found surprising sources of resilience to the reduction in leadership activities. Our study is the first to look at the details of how leadership (and a reduction in this role) affects several types of sub-community within a board-and-card game site, and the first to consider some of the factors that lead to differences in the effects of leadership reduction. Overall, we found that negative effects on sub-communities were closely tied to the specific activities that the leader provided, and the degree to which he was the only person able to provide those roles. The broad strokes of this finding agree with the leadership hypothesis, but there are several unexpected elements within the main story: the negative effects were less drastic than we anticipated, and all of the sub-communities (even the most dependent) survived the transition. The strong resilience of some of the sub-communities seems to be connected to their ability to “fall back” to a foundation of shared activity (i.e., game play) – an idea that has been introduced in earlier work but never studied empirically. This research helps designers to understand the complexities of leadership in online communities, providing an important foundation for developing and supporting online groups.
- Conference PaperA Collaborative Investigation into Visual Sense-making of Environmental Sound Recordings(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 26(4-5)- ECSCW 2017: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2017) Dema, Tshering; Cappadonna, Jessica L; Brereton, Margot; Roe, Paul; Truskinger, Anthony; Zhang, Jinglan
- Text DocumentA design theme for tangible interaction: Embodied facilitation(ECSCW 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2005) Hornecker, EvaThis paper presents parts of a design framework for collaboratively used tangible interaction systems, focusing on the theme of Embodied Facilitation. Systems can be interpreted as spaces/structures to act and move in, facilitating some movements and hindering others. Thus they shape the ways we collaborate, induce collaboration or make us refrain from it. Tangible interaction systems provide virtual and physical structure - they truly embody facilitation. Three concepts further refine the theme: Embodied Constraints, Multiple Access Points and Tailored Representations. These are broken down into design guidelines and each illustrated with examples.
- Text DocumentA General Multi-User Undo/Redo Model(ECSCW 1995: Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1995) Choudhary, Rajiv; Dewan, PrasunA general multi-user undo/redo model must satisfy several requirements It must be compatible with an existing single-user undo/redo model, give individual users autonomy in executing undo/redo commands, support undo/redo of remote commands and the remote effects of local commands, be independent of the coupling, multicast, and concurrency control model, and allow undo/redo of arbitrary commands We have developed a multi-user undo/redo model for meeting these requirements The model constructs the command history of a particular user by including all local commands and those remote commands whose results were made visible to that user It allows a user to undo/redo corresponding commands in the command histories of all users of a program Moreover, it allows a user to undo/redo both symmetric user-interface commands and asymmetric collaboration commands We have implemented the model in a collaboration system called Suite In this paper, we motivate, describe, and illustrate these requirements and our model
- Text DocumentA Group-based Authorization Model for Cooperative Systems(ECSCW 1997: Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1997) Sikkel, KlaasRequirements for access control in CSCW systems have often been stated, but groupware in use today does not meet most of these requirements. There are practical reasons for this, but one of the problems is the inherent complexity of sophisticated access control models. We propose a general authorization model that emphasizes conceptual simplicity and show that several issues—in particular negative access rights and delegation of rights—can be solved elegantly in this model.
- Text DocumentA groupware design framework for loosely coupled workgroups(ECSCW 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2005) Pinelle, David; Gutwin, CarlLoosely coupled workgroups – where workers are autonomous and weakly interdependent – are common in the real world. They have patterns of work and collaboration that distinguish them from other types of groups, and groupware systems that are designed to support loose coupling must address these differences. However, loosely coupled groups have not been studied in detail in CSCW, and the design process for these groups is currently underspecified. This forces designers to start from scratch each time they develop a system for loosely coupled groups, and they must approach new work settings with little information about how work practices are organized. In this paper, we present a design framework to improve the groupware design process for loosely coupled workgroups. The framework was developed to provide designers with a better understanding of how groupware systems can be designed to support loosely coupled work practices. It is based on information from CSCW and organizational research, and on real-world design experiences with one type of loosely coupled group— home care treatment teams. The framework was used to develop Mohoc, a groupware system for home care, and the system and underlying framework were evaluated during two field trials.
- Text DocumentA groupware's life(ECSCW 1999: Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1999) Pipek, Volkmar; Wulf, VolkerThe paper describes a long-term study of a groupware application which covers the complete lifecycle from the groupware's introduction to its removal. During that tim'e'ou'r field of application offered the opportunity to gain deep insights into personal, organizational and technical aspects of the groupware's usage. We focus on the late phases of a groupware's life, i.e. on the new aspect of groupware removal and the resulting requirements for groupware platforms. Additionally we contribute to the current discussion on organizational change processes which are initiated by the introduction of groupware.
- Text DocumentA Model for Real-Time Co-operation(ECSCW 1991: Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1991) DePaoli, Flavio; Tisato, FrancescoThis paper introduces a general model for both specifying and designing conferences. A major goal of the model is to be useful at both the specification and the design stage. The model follows an object-oriented approach. It is based on the different roles played by groups of conference attendants, and describes conference behaviour in term of role changes. Groups are defined at different abstraction levels. Specific activities (multiplexing of data streams, floor-control for a conversation, overall conference management) are driven by coordinators. They encapsulate different aspects, such as: device- and media-dependencies, application-dependent behaviours and user oriented strategies. Coordinators can be combined in a hierarchical control structure.
- Text DocumentA Model for Semi-(a)Synchronous Collaborative Editing(ECSCW 1993: Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1993) Minör, Sten; Magnusson, BorisThis paper presents a new model lor semi-synchronous collaborative editing. It fills the gap between asynchronous and synchronous editing styles. The model is based on hierarchically partitioned documents, fine-grained version control, and a mechanism called active cliffs for supplying collaboration awareness. The aim of the model is to provide an editing style that better suits the way people actually are working when editing a document or program together, using different writing strategies during different activities.
- Text DocumentA safe space to vent: Conciliation and conflict in distributed teams(ECSCW 2007: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2007) Billings, Matt; Watts, Leon A.This paper considers the nature of conflict in relation to the environments within which distributed teams cooperate. Effective conflict management can bring great benefits to distributed teams, while inadequate conflict resolution strategies can incur significant personal and resource costs. The increased geographical, cognitive and emotional distances between members can stimulate and amplify conflict. Parties may display disinhibited behaviour (flaming) or may be reluctant to accept reconciliatory overtures (low trust). These factors can be attributed to the impact of communication technology on social structures that underlie interaction. Shifting to face-to-face meetings can be impractical or involve prohibitive cost, so it is important to establish how best to deal with conflict in technologically-mediated settings. Dispute resolution practitioners (conciliators) have evolved strategies and techniques to construct and regulate "safe-spaces"
- Text DocumentA Spatial Model of Interaction in Large Virtual Environments(ECSCW 1993: Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1993) Benford, Steve; Fahlén, LennartWe present a spatial model of group interaction in virtual environments. The model aims to provide flexible and natural support for managing conversations among large groups gathered in virtual space. However, it can also be used to control more general interactions among other kinds of objects inhabiting such spaces. The model defines the key abstractions of object aura, nimbus, focus and adapters to control mutual levels of awareness. Furthermore, these are defined in a sufficiently general way so as to apply to any CSCW system where a spatial metric can be identified - i.e. a way of measuring position and direction. Several examples are discussed, including virtual reality and text conferencing applications. Finally, the paper provides a more formal computational architecture for the spatial model by relating it to the object oriented modelling approach for distributed systems.
- Text DocumentA Theory of Document Processing Machines - Praxiological and Cybernatical Appraoch to Information Systems(ECSCW 1989: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1989) Rawinski, TomaszThe practice of information systems application and development is definitely in need of scund theoretical foundations the task to develop them was formulated and undertaken by IFIP. The document processing machines Idcpml theory is an attempt to accomplish the task. The paper presents the theory in a very condensed way and discusses: task formulated by IFIP, enviroment and scope of dcpm usage, activities of dcp~ users, architetur and organization of fullutility dcpms. The theory has originated of the praactice.
- Conference PaperAcademic Library Managers’ Use of Artefacts in their Everyday Cooperative Work Practices(Proceedings of 17th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Doctoral Colloquium, 2019) Chatzipanagiotou, NikiThis interpretive focused-ethnographic study was conducted to illuminate and gain deeper understanding on managers’ everyday cooperative work practices using artefacts. In the dissertation, artefacts refer to digital technologies and information. The doctoral research specifically examines how artefacts in the workplace of an academic library are used in academic library managers’ everyday cooperative work practices; and provide suggestions of how artefacts can be used to better fit those practices. The empirical data was collected through participant observations, face-to-face interviews and documents from two technologically advanced academic libraries, one in Sweden and another one in Australia. The study uses soft systems thinking theory and concepts from computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) such as awareness, articulation and appropriation to analyze and discuss how cooperative work is conducted in the everyday work practices of academic library managers with the use of artefacts. Thus, this research contributes insights from the field of computer-supported cooperative work to the information systems and library domain by considering social aspects of cooperative everyday work practices.
- Journal ArticleAccountability in Brazilian Governmental Software Project: How Chat Technology enables Social Translucence in Bug Report Activities(Computer Supported Cooperative Work 27(3-4)- ECSCW 2018: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2018) Tenório, Nelson; Pinto, Danieli; Bjørn, PernilleFixing software bug is part of the daily work routine in software engineering which requires collaboration and thus has been explored as a core CSCW domain, since the early inception of the research field. In this paper, we explore the use of chat technology in software engineering by analyzing the coordination between client and vendor in a large government software project in Brazil (Gov-IT). We collected our empirical material through face-to-face and online interviews, site and chat forums observations. Looking closely at the bug fixing activities within Gov-IT, we find that the client and the vendor use chat technology to coordinate their cooperative work by enabling the participants to monitor the availability of developers and the urgency of detecting bugs synchronously. This way, the chat technology made it possible for the client to report bugs and developers to resolve bugs in a timely manner. Moreover, the chat technology enabled the participants to request and share artefacts synchronously, making it possible to analyze and understand the contextual nature surrounding bugs faster than using the bug tracking system. Finally, the chat technology enabled participants in enacting commitment and interdependence across vendor and client, creating cooperative situations of mutual dependence. Our results suggest that we, as CSCW designers, must rethink the design of bug tracking systems and find new ways to re-configure systems, so they support the coordinative practices involved in detecting, analyzing, and resolving critical and severe software bugs synchronously.
- Text DocumentAchieving Continuity of Care: A Study of the Challenges in a Danish and a US Hospital Department(ECSCW 2013: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2013) Møller, Naja L. HoltenContinuity of care is a central topic for healthcare practice and is closely related to issues of collaboration. Thus, studying continuity of care from a CSCW perspective can help us understand what makes continuity of care in practice. In this paper, we show how collaborative technologies are appropriated differently in two cases, one in Denmark and the other in the US. We illustrate how this appropriation is dependent on challenges particular to the organizational context of work. Studying the practices in two different hospital departments we found that in practice achieving continuity of care depends on two main characteristics in the organization of work, namely 1) the constitution of roles and 2) the responsibility for care linked to the appropriation of collaborative technologies. These characteristics of the organization of work create different solutions to the challenges of discontinuity when physicians appropriate mundane collaborative technologies: patient records and pagers. To understand how continuity of care is achieved in practice we have to study the appropriation of technologies, the paper argues, and by comparing across cases we may begin to discern challenges that cut across context – and their different origins.
- Text DocumentActivity Awareness: Framework for sharing knowledge of people, projects, and places(ECSCW 1999: Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1999) Hayashi, Koichi; Hazama, Tan; Nomura, Takahiko; Yamada, Toshifumi; Gudmundson, StephanIn this paper we describe the concept of activity awareness, which gives workers indications of what is happening and what has happened recently in collaborative activities. The key feature of activity awareness is the use of individual workspaces, as opposed to shared workspaces We introduce an activity representation that can be extracted from workers' individual workspaces By using extracted activity information, it extends the scope of awareness from tight collaboration within a shared workspace to more loose collaboration. It enables workers to be aware of the latest information created within other members' individual environments and of the progress made by loosely connected groups We introduce three awareness nodes people, projects, and places In our model, individual activities interact at these awareness nodes. Our current implementation adopts a temporally threaded workspace model for representing individual activities and introduces an awareness presentation schema for representing the three awareness nodes. The temporally threaded workspace model captures a worker's activity as a sequence of changes to the information space of the individual's workspace An awareness presentation schema generates web pages to show awareness information about the monitored activities
- Text DocumentThe Activity Model Environment: An Object Oriented Framework for Describing Organisational Communication(Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1989) Smith, H. T.; Hennessy, P. A.; Lunt, G.
- Text DocumentAdaptability of classification schemes in cooperation: What does it mean?(ECSCW 2001: Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 2001) Simone, Carla; Sarini, MarcelloThe overview of a set of field studies highlights how different are the scenarios in which classification schemes (CS) play a role in cooperation. In al l cases, adaptability is claimed as a fundemental requirement for their usability and effective usage. What adaptability means for CS is not an easy question. The paper tries to artivulate this requierement and denve implications on the design of a suppportive technology.