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- Conference PaperAAPI Identity Work on Reddit: Toward Social Support and Collective Action(Proceedings of the 2018 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2018) Dosono, BryanAsian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are perceived as the model minority" with a monolithic identity, in contrast to other marginalized racial groups in the United States. In reality, they are composed of different ethnicities, socio-economic backgrounds, and political ideologies. My research employs social network analysis with qualitative research methods to explore, interpret, and visualize large collections of social media data. I seek to understand how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) construct and express their identity in online communities and my dissertation research uncovers the ways in which AAPIs negotiate collective action in the context of online identity work."
- Text DocumentAn Access Control Framework for Multi-User Collaborative Environments(Proceedings of the 1999 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 1999) Bullock, Adrian; Benford, SteveA vital component of any application or environment is security, and yet this is often one of the lower priorities, losing out to performance and functionality issues, if it is considered at all. This paper considers a spatial approach to enabling, understanding and managing access control that is generally applicable across a range of collaborative environments and applications. Access control is governed according to the space within which subjects and objects reside, and the ability to traverse space to get close to an object. We present a framework that enables the SPACE access model , previously presented as an access model solely for collaborative virtual environments, to be applied across a number of collaborative systems. This framework is exemplified through mappings of the model to 3D and 2D collaborative environments, namely Spline , TeamRooms  and Orbit . One particularly interesting feature of the model is the way in which it handles group access by considering how group credentials are determined. These credentials are presented to the model in the usual manner. We conclude by presenting some limitations of our approach, and workarounds.
- Conference PaperAd Empathy: A Design Fiction(Proceedings of the 2018 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2018) Skirpan, Michael; Fiesler, CaseyIndustry demand for novel forms of personalization and audience targeting paired with research trends in affective computing and emotion detection puts us on a clear path toward emotion-sensitive technologies. Written as API documentation for an AI marketing solution that provides emotion-sensitive marketing decisions," this design fiction presents one possible future application of today's research. Offering a demonstrable grey area in technology ethics, Ad Empathy should help to ground debates around fair use of data, and the boundaries of ethical design."
- Text DocumentAdaptive Forward Error Correction for Real-Time Groupware(Proceedings of the 2012 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2012) Dyck, Jeff; Gutwin, Carl; Makaroff, DwightReal-time distributed groupware sends several kinds of messages with varying quality-of-service requirements. However, standard network protocols do not provide the flexibility needed to support these different requirements (either providing too much reliability or too little), leading to poor performance on real-world networks. To address this problem, we investigated the use of an application-level networking technique called adaptive forward error correction (AFEC) for real-time groupware. AFEC can maintain a predefined level of reliability while avoiding the overhead of packet acknowledgement or retransmission. We analysed the requirements of typical real-time groupware systems and developed an AFEC technique to meet these needs. We tested the new technique in an experiment that measured message reliability and latency using TCP, plain UDP, UDP with non-adaptive FEC, and UDP with our AFEC scheme, under several simulated network conditions. Our results show that for awareness messages that can tolerate some loss, FEC approaches keep latency at nearly the plain-UDP level while dramatically improving reliability. In addition, adaptive FEC is the only technique that can maintain a specified level of reliability and also minimize delay as network conditions change. Our study shows that groupware AFEC can be a useful tool for improving the real-world performance and usability of real-time groupware.
- Text DocumentAdaptive Radio: Achieving Consensus Using Negative Preferences(Proceedings of the 2005 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2005) Chao, Dennis L.; Balthrop, Justin; Forrest, StephanieWe introduce the use of negative preferences to produce solutions that are acceptable to a group of users. This technique takes advantage of the fact that discovering what a user does not like can be easier than discovering what the user does like. To illustrate the approach, we implemented Adaptive Radio, a system that selects music to play in a shared environment. Rather than attempting to play the songs that users want to hear, the system avoids playing songs that they do not want to hear. Negative preferences could potentially be applied to information filtering, intelligent environments, and collaborative design.
- Conference PaperAI Story Relay: A Collaborative Writing of Design Fiction to Investigate Artificial Intelligence Design Considerations(Companion Proceedings of the 2023 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2023) Im, Hyeonjeong; Jeon, Soobin; Cho, Haena; Shin, Sungyong; Choi, Dasom; Hong, HwajungArtificial intelligence (AI) continuously evolves its level of complexity as it interacts with users. To address the unexpected outcomes of AI, developers desire to communicate with prospective users and reflect their opinions in the AI design pipeline. In this paper, we introduce the “AI story relay,” a method by which the AI developer and users collaboratively construct a design fiction in a relay for AI design considerations. To explore the method’s potential that encourages communication between AI developers and users, we conducted a case study of an AI-based coaching service. We expect AI story relay to contribute to fostering a dynamic exchange of views between developers and prospective users.
- Conference PaperAlgorithmic Decision Making in Public Administration: A CSCW-Perspective(Companion Proceedings of the 2020 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2020) Flügge, Asbjörn AmmitzböllIn this paper, I propose a study of algorithmic decision making in public administration from a computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) perspective. Each day the public administration makes thousands of decisions with consequences for the welfare of its citizens. An increasing number of such decisions are supported or made by algorithmic decision making (ADM) systems, yet in the scientific and public sphere there is a growing concern that these algorithms become a 'black box' possibly containing hidden bias (Olsen et al., 2019), obstacles for human discretion (Rason, 2017), low transparency (Alkhatib and Bernstein, 2019) or trust (Mittelstadt et al. 2016). For example, ADM is currently tested in public administration in job placement for the prediction of a citizen's risk of long-term unemployment. Following prior research questioning the usefulness of the black box metaphor, my interest is to understand how caseworkers' and citizens understand ADM, as a basis for design of CSCW technologies employing ADM.
- Conference PaperAlgorithmic Decision Making in Public Services: A CSCW-Perspective(Companion Proceedings of the 2020 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2020) Flügge, Asbjörn William Ammitzböll; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Möller, Naja HoltenEach day the public administration makes thousands of decisions with consequences for the welfare of its citizens. An increasing number of such decisions are supported or made by algorithmic decision making (ADM) systems, yet there is a widespread concern that these algorithms create a 'black box' of embedded bias, lack of human discretion, transparency or trust. For example, ADM is currently tested in public administration in job placement for prediction of a citizen's risk of long-term unemployment. This research project focus on bringing about research on citizens' 'trust' and 'transparency' from a practice-oriented perspective when algorithms are increasingly introduced in public services such as job placement. We propose a study of citizen-government relations to begin to uncover how computational systems and semi-automated decisions affect the relationship between citizens and caseworker, as they work through the collaborative processes around casework. In this context, our question is: What are citizens and caseworkers' different concepts of trust and transparency? How are casework processes affected as we are beginning to see a closer integration between legal guidelines and computational systems in casework? These questions are of huge importance to get a better understanding of how algorithms are changing the ways society makes decisions in core areas of public services in order to inform the responsible design of technologies in areas such as job placement.
- Text DocumentAll My People Right Here, Right Now: Management of Group Co-Presence on a Social Networking Site(Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2009) Lampinen, Airi; Tamminen, Sakari; Oulasvirta, AnttiA mundane but theoretically interesting and practically relevant situation presents itself on social networking sites: the co-presence of multiple groups important to an individual. This primarily qualitative study concentrates on the point of view of individual SNS users and their perspectives on multiple group affiliations. After charting the perceived multiplicity of groups on the social networking site Facebook, we investigated the relevance of multiple groups to the users and the effect of group co-presence on psychological identification processes. Users deal with group co-presence by managing the situation to prevent anticipated conflictive and identity-threatening situations. Their behavioral strategies consist of dividing the platform into separate spaces, using suitable channels of communication, and performing self-censorship. Mental strategies include both the creation of more inclusive in-group identities and the reciprocity of trusting other users and being responsible. In addition to giving further evidence of the existence of group co-presence on SNSs, the study sheds light on the management of the phenomenon. Management of group co-presence should be supported, since otherwise users may feel the urge to resort to defensive strategies of social identity protection such as ceasing to use SNSs altogether or, less dramatically, limit their use according to the least common denominator". Hence, the phenomenon merits the attention of researchers, developers, and designers alike."
- Conference PaperAnalysis of Human Nodding Behavior during Group Work for Designing Nodding Robots(Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2016) Kihara, Hayato; Fukushima, Shogo; Naemura, TakeshiNodding has various communicative functions in humans, such as agreement, emphasis and turn-taking and can also create various positive impressions in communication by the person exhibiting the behavior. The ultimate aim of our research is to facilitate communication by implementing nodding behavior in robots. This study analyzed videos of human conversations in groups and focused on three aspects of people's nodding behavior as they listened to others: 1) Time period to complete a nodding cycle and each nods, 2) Time delay before initiating a nodding response, and 3) Number of continuous nods used at one time. We found that: 1) The mode time period to a nod was 0.27 s, with 96% of all nods occurring within 0.17~0.57 s. 2) The mode time delay before initiating a nodding response was 0.30 s, with 95% of all nods occurring within -0.78~1.4 s. 3) Fewer than six continuous nods were used 97% of the time - one nod, 55%, two nods, 24%, three nods, 12%, four nods, 3.0%, and five nods, 2.1%. Ultimately, the research findings serve as guidelines for implementing accurate human nodding behavior in robots.
- Text DocumentAnalysis of Tag within Online Social Networks(Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2009) Wu, Chao; Zhou, BoIn recent years, tagging systems have been paid increasing attentions from both research communities and system designers. Most popular online social networking sites harness tag for managing and locating contents, for organizing and connecting users, and for recommending and sharing resources. We believe that tag acts like bridge between people and resources. Research on tag and tagging behavior will provide us insight about resource space and user activities on the Internet. In this paper, we present a two-level analysis of the tagging system of Del.icio.us. The results from both two levels confirm each other. In network level, we connect tags by users collaborative tagging to form a social network of tags. By investigating its network feature, we find phenomena of small world and scale-free network. We also discover that the links within this network have relatively strong semantic relatedness. In individual level, users' tagging behaviors and patterns are observed by visualizing their bookmarking history on Del.icio.us. Besides, we study the linked users by their tags and find that users within a subscription network share more common interests than random pairs of users. During the analysis, we also discuss the implications of the findings for the design of tag-based system.
- Text DocumentAnalyzing Misconceptions in Multilingual Computer-Mediated Communication(Proceedings of the 2005 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2005) Yamashita, Naomi; Ishida, ToruMultilingual communities using machine translation to overcome language barriers are showing up with increasing frequency. However, when a large number of translation errors get mixed into conversation, it becomes difficult for users to fully understand each other. In this paper, we focus on misconceptions found in high volume in actual online conversations using machine translation. By comparing responses via machine translation and responses without machine translation, we extract two response patterns, which may be strongly related to the occurrence of misconceptions in machine translation-mediated communication. The two response patterns are that users tend to respond to short phrases of the original message and tend to trip on the wording of the original message when responding via machine translation.
- Conference PaperAnyone for Bowling? Coalescing for Shared Activities(Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2014) Ricken, Stephen; Grandhi, Sukeshini; Zytko, Doug; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne; Jones, QuentinDespite the importance of individuals coming together for social group-activities (e.g. pick-up volleyball, chess clubs), the process by which such groups coalesce is poorly understood. Existing theories focus on adoption and contribution rates, group types, and the formation of group norms, as opposed to the processes involved in initial group coalescence. We address this gap in the literature through an interview study examining: 1) how well people's needs for social group activity engagement are being met; 2) the challenges they face in finding and participating in, and; 3) leading interest-based group activities. Our findings highlight how people-s needs are not being addressed by current technologies. In particular, they place a heavy burden on individuals to step forward into leadership positions where the return they will receive for their efforts is often unknown, or extremely limited. We discuss the implications of our findings for the design of interest-based group coalescing technology.
- Conference PaperApplying Human-Centered Data Science to Healthcare: Hyperlocal Modeling of COVID-19 Hospitalizations(Companion Proceedings of the 2023 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2023) Chui, Victoria; Pater, Jessica; Toscos, Tammy; Guha, ShionAlgorithms as a component of decision-making in healthcare are becoming increasingly prevalent and AI in healthcare has become a topic of mass consideration. However, pursuing these methods without a human-centered framework can lead to bias, thus incorporating discrimination on behalf of the algorithm upon implementation. By examining each step of the design process from a human-centered perspective and incorporating stakeholder motivations, algorithmic implementation can become vastly useful, and more accurately tailored to stakeholder needs. We examine previous work in healthcare executed with a human-centered design, to analyze the multiple frameworks which effectively create human-centered application, as extended to healthcare.
- Conference PaperArticulating Institutionalization: How U.S. Academic Faculty Organize Work to Deposit Data and the Impacts on Long-Term Research Data Sustainability(Companion Proceedings of the 2023 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2023) Bratt, Sarah ElaineWith the ‘data deluge’ leading to an institutionalized research environment for data management, U.S. academic faculty have increasingly faced pressure to make data suitable for deposit into research data repositories, which, in turn, is engendering a new set of practices to adapt federal policy to local circumstances. When these practices involve reorganizing workflows to align the goals of local and institutional stakeholders, we might call them ‘data articulations.’ This dissertation uses interviews to establish a grounded understanding of the data articulations behind deposit in 3 essays: (1) a phenomenological study of genomics faculty data management practices; (2) a grounded theory study developing a theory of data deposit as articulation work; (3) a comparative case study identifying the factors associated with ‘articulating institutionalization’ in high-institutionalization and low-institutionalization of data deposit contexts. Expected findings include a framework of datarticulations and empirical insight into how faculty organize data management work.
- Text DocumentAs Technophobia Disappears: Implications for Design(Proceedings of the 2005 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2005) Grudin, Jonathan; Tallarico, Shari; Counts, ScottWe conducted two studies of communication: an ethnographic study of communication primarily in homes, cars, and public places, and a survey of communication in a large corporation. A clear pattern emerged. To a greater degree than expected in the ethnographic study, people were familiar with a broad range of communication tools. Awareness and a lack of anxiety was the norm even for tools that a person rarely or had not yet used. As a result, people frequently shifted to the tool that was most appropriate for a task at hand. The resulting behaviors conflict with popular press images and have implications for the designers of communication tools.
- Text DocumentAt a Different Tempo: What Goes Wrong in Online Cross-Cultural Group Chat?(Proceedings of the 2012 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2012) Li, Na; Rosson, Mary BethCross-cultural communication has become increasingly prevalent in organizations and education systems. Such communication often takes place in a distributed fashion, and many studies have examined the impact of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on distributed cross-cultural groups. For example the literature points to cultural factors that could cause communication failures, such as individualism vs. collectivism, high context vs. low context, and power distance. We contend that language proficiency, a basic and fundamental difference between people from English speaking countries and other countries, is often neglected by researchers. Therefore, we have begun a detailed investigation of cross-cultural group chat. We chose text chat as a target technology because previous studies reported it as non-native speakers' preferred choice for CMC. Our study revealed that language proficiency played a pivotal role in cross-cultural group chat. When people conversed at different levels of proficiency, turn taking was severely disrupted, causing confusion and neglect of discussion points. We also found that some native speakers hold back ideas to accommodate the non-fluency of non-native speakers, slowing down the group process and outcomes. Working from these findings, we discuss possible designs that could assist both non-native and native speakers in cross-cultural group chat.
- Text DocumentATCoPE: Any-Time Collaborative Programming Environment for Seamless Integration of Real-Time and Non-Real-Time Teamwork in Software Development(Proceedings of the 2012 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2012) Fan, Hongfei; Sun, Chengzheng; Shen, HaifengReal-time collaborative programming and non-real-time collaborative programming are two classes of methods and techniques for supporting programmers to jointly conduct complex programming work in software development. They are complementary to each other, and both are useful and effective under different programming circumstances. However, most existing programming tools and environments have been designed for supporting only one of them, and little has been done to provide integrated support for both. In this paper, we contribute a novel Any-Time Collaborative Programming Environment (ATCoPE) to seamlessly integrate conventional non-real-time collaborative programming tools and environments with emerging real-time collaborative programming techniques and support collaborating programmers to work in and flexibly switch among different collaboration modes according to their needs. We present the general design objectives for ATCoPE, the system architecture, functional design and specifications, rationales beyond design decisions, and major technical issues and solutions in detail, as well as a proof-of-concept implementation of the ATCoEclipse prototype system.
- Text DocumentAugmenting and Multiplying Spaces for Creative Design(Proceedings of the 1997 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 1997) Leiva-Lobos, Edmundo P.; De Michelis, Giorgio; Covarrubias, Eliana
- Text DocumentAugmenting Classroom Participation through Public Digital Backchannels(Proceedings of the 2012 ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2012) Du, Honglu; Rosson, Mary Beth; Carroll, John M.An emerging trend in classroom technology research is the use of computer mediated communication (CMC) tools in classrooms to encourage students' in-class participation. As part of this research thread, we have been investigating the potential of public digital backchannels for building feelings of community among students in university courses. We designed, deployed and evaluated such a tool in a 15-week field study of two undergraduate classes. We found students found using public backchannel during the class is of little distraction, that teachers' attention to the content posted on the channel influence students' tendency to use tools of this kind. Further, we found that the relevance of the content shared is predictive of students' use of ClasCommons in the classroom; these feelings in turn are related to students' perceptions of self-efficacy, collective efficacy and course-specific social support. We also analyzed the content posted in the public backchannel and considered the benefits and drawbacks of the public digital from both students' and teachers' perspectives. We conclude with suggestions for improving the design and deployment of course-related backchannels.