ECSCW 2018 Exploratory Papers

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  • Conference Paper
    Reconsidering online reputation systems
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Wilson, Anna; De Paoli, Stefano
    Social and socioeconomic interactions and transactions often require trust. In digital spaces, the main approach to facilitating trust has effectively been to try to reduce or even remove the need for it through the implementation of reputation systems. These generate metrics based on digital data such as ratings and reviews submitted by users, interaction histories, and so on, that are intended to label individuals as more or less reliable or trustworthy in a particular interaction context. We suggest that conventional approaches to the design of such systems are rooted in a capitalist, competitive paradigm, relying on methodological individualism, and that the reputation technologies themselves thus embody and enact this paradigm in whatever space they operate in. We question whether the politics, ethics and philosophy that contribute to this paradigm align with those of some of the contexts in which reputation systems are now being used, and suggest that alternative approaches to the establishment of trust and reputation in digital spaces need to be considered for alternative contexts.
  • Conference Paper
    Towards a Better Understanding of Availability and Interruptibility with Mobile Availability Probes
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Fetter, Mirko; Müller, Anna-Lena; Vasilyev, Petr; Barth, Laura Marie; Gross, Tom
    In cooperative work shared awareness on mutual availability is important for the overall performance of the team. There has been great research on quantitatively analysing users’ behaviour and automatically detecting their interruptibility. In this paper we present our approach towards a better qualitative understanding of availability of users. Leveraging on experience sampling and cultural probes we developed a mobile tool to collect Mobile Availability Probes. We motivate the need for a better qualitative understanding of availability, introduce our approach and the Mobile Availability Probes, and present and discuss initially collected availability data.
  • Conference Paper
    Blockchain and CSCW – Shall we care?
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Prinz, Wolfgang
    This exploratory paper examines the relationship between CSCW and emerging blockchain technologies. Although the blockchain technology is at first sight not directly related to CSCW, this paper will identify a number of CSCW research areas that are relevant and that can either profit or contribute to blockchain research. To open CSCW research to new areas and to stipulate a discussion between the disciplines, the paper will start with a brief introduction to basic blockchain concepts followed by an exploration of the relationships between the two research areas. It concludes with an initial proposal on how CSCW research results and concepts can inform blockchain design.
  • Conference Paper
    Coordination, Communication, and Competition in eSports: A Comparative Analysis of Teams in Two Action Games
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Lipovaya, Viktoriya; Lima, Yuri; Grillo, Pedro; Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; de Souza, Jano Moreira; Duarte, Francisco José de Castro Moura
    eSports are increasing in popularity and in importance worldwide and, given that they essentially involve the cooperation of teams competing among themselves, they are an interesting study object for the CSCW field. In this study, we contribute to the CSCW literature regarding eSports by performing a comparative analysis of two different action games, focusing on how cooperation, communication, and competition take place in each one of them. To do so, we perform a semi-qualitative study involving interviews with professional and amateur players. Then, we analyzed the results of the fieldwork, which consisted of a 31-question questionnaire with 65 valid respondents. Moreover, we discuss and highlight the relationship between our results and other CSCW-related works focusing on our research questions. Among our findings, we can highlight the specialization of work in different eSport teams, the importance of non-verbal communication during matches, and the interplay between competition and collaboration in the same team.
  • Conference Paper
    Exploring the Impact of Video on Inferred Difficulty Awareness
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Carter, Jason; Pichiliani, Mauro Carlos; Dewan, Prasun
    An important issue in many forms of collaboration technology is how video can help the technology better meet its goals. This paper explores this question for difficulty awareness, which is motivated by academic and industrial collaboration scenarios in which unsolicited help is offered to programmers in difficulty. We performed experiments to determine how well difficulty can be automatically inferred by mining the interaction log and/or videos of programmers. Our observations show that: (a) it is more effective to mine the videos to detect programmer postures rather than facial features; (b) posture- mining benefits from an individual model (training data for a developer is used only for that developer), while in contrast, log-mining benefits from a group model (data of all users are used for each user); (b) posture-mining alone (using an individual model) does not detect difficulties of “calm” programmers, who do not change postures when they are in difficulty; (c) log-mining alone (using a group model) does not detect difficulties of programmers who pause interaction when they are either in difficulty or taking a break; (d) overall, log-mining alone is more effective than posture-mining, alone; (e) both forms of mining have high false negative rates; and (g) multimedia/multimodal detection that mines postures and logs using a group model gives both low false positive and negatives. These results imply that (a) when collaborators can be seen, either directly or through a video, posture changes, though idiosyncratic, are important cues for inferring difficulty; (b) automatically inferred difficulty, using both interaction-logs and postures, when possible and available, is an even more reliable indication of difficulty; (c) video can play an important role in providing unsolicited help in both face-to-face and distributed collaboration; and (d) controlled public environments such as labs and war-rooms should be equipped with cameras that support posture mining.
  • Conference Paper
    Infrastructuring for remote night monitoring: frictions in the strive for transparency when digitalising care service
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Andersson, Christoffer; Cozza, Michela; Crevani, Lucia; Schunnesson, Jonathan
    The question of how to organise for the introduction of a new service involving the interaction of humans and technologies is both crucial and challenging. Convergence between the community of practice using the technology and the design of the technology is crucial for the technology to become meaningful and usable. While processes of convergence are challenging in themselves, they become more complex if several communities of practice are going to use and collaborate around/through the technology. The co-presence of different communities of practice is a common situation when delivering public welfare services. In particular, the development of welfare technology is a context rich in potential frictions, making convergence challenging. By mobilising the concept of transparency, we analyse the process of implementation of remote night monitoring and highlight how transparency is related to different aspects. Such analysis reveals that processes of convergence are related in this context not only to frictions shared with other settings, but also to specific frictions related to matters of concern in welfare services. This leads us to discuss whether digitalised care services can be argued as still having a human side or not.
  • Conference Paper
    The Digital Work Environment–a Challenge and an Opportunity for CSCW
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Nauwerck, Gerolf; Cowen Forssell, Rebecka
    In this exploratory paper we will present the emerging concept of the Digital Work Environment. This is concept rooted in Swedish debate on the workplace, information and communication technology (ICT) and well-being. We argue that the concept can be understood as a boundary object uniting different actors (mainly researchers, unions, and policy makers) in a common discourse on what has been labelled as the dark side of information technology. We also argue that the concept needs to embrace an organisational perspective as well as the relational aspects of the psychosocial work environment. Such a move would open the door to a large volume of relevant research that might reinvigorate the concept. More specifically we will show how this would allow the inclusion of the increasingly important aspect of cyberbullying, which at the same time is an example of blurring borders between work and non-work ICT use.
  • Conference Paper
    Exploring Forced Migrants (Re)settlement & the Role of Digital Services
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Bustamante Duarte, Ana Maria; Degbelo, Auriol; Kray, Christian
    In recent years, large numbers of forced migrants have arrived in urban areas all around the world. Access to relevant information and suitable technology can help forced migrants, mainly refugees and asylum seekers, to cope with several of the challenges they face in this process. We conducted a qualitative study with ten forced migrants and six social workers and a staff member of a collective lodging for young forced migrants in Münster, Germany. The goal was to identify challenges and needs in this specific context, find criteria for assessing digital support services for forced migrants, and suggest general aspects of improvement. We analyzed 36 existing mobile applications and web services useful for forced migrants upon arrival and during (re)settlement. Our results highlight some critical issues to be addressed through digital services for forced migrants regarding information reliability, timeliness, and complexity, as well as an occasional lack of experience with geospatial services.
  • Conference Paper
    The Novelty Effect in Large Display Deployments – Experiences and Lessons-Learned for Evaluating Prototypes
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Koch, Michael; von Luck, Kai; Schwarzer, Jan; Draheim, Susanne
    This exploratory paper addresses the novelty effect in large display field deployments by combining findings from both the existing body of knowledge and our own research. We found that the novelty effect is prevalently present on two occasions: (a) immediately after a new system is deployed in a new environment, and (b) in reoccurring situations, when changes are made to an existing system. Both instances share similarities such as a system’s higher usage during a particular time frame. However, we also observed that their individual reasons to occur are multifaceted. The present work’s main contribution is twofold. Firstly, the paper outlines related literature regarding the novelty effect, particularly in CSCW and HCI. Secondly, the paper illustrates the effect’s complex nature and suggests explicit means that should be considered in related research endeavors.
  • Conference Paper
    Supporting Collaboration in Small Volunteer Groups with Socio-Technical Heuristics
    (Proceedings of 16th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - Exploratory Papers, 2018) Nolte, Alexander; Jahnke, Isa; Chounta, Irene-Angelica; Herrmann, Thomas
    In this paper, we present a study on group work in which student volunteers from different disciplines worked together to create an augmented reality expedition. The goal of the project was to develop an augmented campus tour for students. The project was successful in delivering the app but through post project interviews we found that volunteers were not satisfied with the process and expressed negative insights. In order to understand this phenomenon, we developed and applied a set of categories for detecting underlying problems in socio-technical processes of volunteer group work. Applying those categories to the aforementioned project allowed us to assess their feasibility. This led to refined categories that can potentially support other volunteer groups to create a suitable socio-technical environment.