- Journal ArticleHow Does Collaborative Reflection Unfold in Online Communities? An Analysis of Two Data Sets(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 6, 2020) Prilla, Michael; Blunk, Oliver; Chounta, Irene-AngelicaPeople can learn a lot through (collaborative) reflection at work: In organizations, staff debate experiences and due to issues every day, thus reflecting together and learning from each other. While this is desirable, it is often hindered by differences in time and space. Online discussions in community-like systems may provide a means to overcome this issue and enable staff to share experiences and learn from them. In this paper, we study two different data sets from two software systems to support online collaborative reflection in order to analyze what possible factors influence the occurrence of aspects of reflection in online discussions, like experiences, suggestions and learning. Our results include findings that partially approve existing models of (collaborative) reflection, but also others that add to or even challenge these models. Overall, we found that collaborative reflection may take different paths towards learning. From this we derive that facilitation mechanisms need to take up these paths, and that facilitation may be successful in different ways than anticipated from existing literature. We describe possible facilitation mechanisms and discuss their implementation.
- Journal ArticleUnpacking the Role of Boundaries in Computer-Supported Collaborative Teaching(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 6, 2020) Willermark, Sara; Pareto, LenaIn this study, we explore the role of boundaries for collaborative learning and transformation of work practices to occur. We report from a three-year action research project including well over 1800 h of participation by the authors. The empirical data are based on project participation work including observations and field notes, project reports, interviews and a questionnaire, within a school development project in Nordic elementary school. In the project, teachers and researchers from three Nordic countries, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, collaborated to develop novel, on-line teaching models for a Nordic Virtual Classroom. The virtual classroom refers to an educational setting where teaching and learning activities are conducted collaboratively in cross-national teams “in the cloud” by means of information technology. During the project, teachers were challenged in their current teaching practices and the project resulted in collaborative learning and transformation of work practice. In this paper, we explore underlying reasons for such transformation to occur by unpacking how and why boundaries can play a role in computer-supported collaborative teaching and stimulate a transformation towards digitalized teaching practices. The paper contributes with an explanation of how the composition of boundaries of a technological, organizational, and cultural nature operates and constitutes a resource for learning and principles for how boundaries can be used for such purpose.
- Journal ArticleWhen the System Does Not Fit: Coping Strategies of Employment Consultants(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 6, 2020) Dolata, Mateusz; Schenk, Birgit; Fuhrer, Jara; Marti, Alina; Schwabe, GerhardCase and knowledge management systems are spread at the frontline across public agencies. However, such systems are dedicated for the collaboration within the agency rather than for the face-to-face interaction with the clients. If used as a collaborative resource at the frontline, case and knowledge management systems might disturb the service provision by displaying unfiltered internal information, disclosing private data of other clients, or revealing the limits of frontline employees’ competence (if they cannot explain something) or their authority (if they cannot override something). Observation in the German Public Employment Agency shows that employment consultants make use of various coping strategies during face-to-face consultations to extend existing boundaries set by the case and knowledge management systems and by the rules considering their usage. The analysis of these coping strategies unveils the forces that shape the conduct of employment consultants during their contacts with clients: the consultants’ own understanding of work, the actual and the perceived needs of the clients, and the political mission as well as the internal rules of the employment agency. The findings form a twofold contribution: First, they contribute to the discourse on work in employment agencies by illustrating how the complexities of social welfare apparatus demonstrate themselves in singular behavioural patterns. Second, they contribute to the discourse on screen-level bureaucracy by depicting the consultants as active and conscious mediators rather than passive interfaces between the system and the client.
- Journal ArticleCoding and Classifying Knowledge Exchange on Social Media: a Comparative Analysis of the #Twitterstorians and AskHistorians Communities(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 6, 2020) Gruzd, Anatoliy; Kumar, Priya; Abul-Fottouh, Deena; Haythornthwaite, CarolineAs social media become a staple for knowledge discovery and sharing, questions arise about how self-organizing communities manage learning outside the domain of organized, authority-led institutions. Yet examination of such communities is challenged by the quantity of posts and variety of media now used for learning. This paper addresses the challenges of identifying (1) what information, communication, and discursive practices support successful online communities, (2) whether such practices are similar on Twitter and Reddit, and (3) whether machine learning classifiers can be successfully used to analyze larger datasets of learning exchanges. This paper builds on earlier work that used manual coding of learning and exchange in Reddit ‘Ask’ communities to derive a coding schema we refer to as ‘learning in the wild’. This schema of eight categories: explanation with disagreement, agreement, or neutral presentation; socializing with negative, or positive intent; information seeking; providing resources; and comments about forum rules and norms. To compare across media, results from coding Reddit’s AskHistorians are compared to results from coding a sample of #Twitterstorians tweets ( n = 594). High agreement between coders affirmed the applicability of the coding schema to this different medium. LIWC lexicon-based text analysis was used to build machine learning classifiers and apply these to code a larger dataset of tweets ( n = 69,101). This research shows that the ‘learning in the wild’ coding schema holds across at least two different platforms, and is partially scalable to study larger online learning communities.
- Journal ArticleStreaming your Identity: Navigating the Presentation of Gender and Sexuality through Live Streaming(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 6, 2020) Freeman, Guo; Wohn, Donghee YvetteThe digital presentation of gender and sexuality has been a long-standing concern in HCI and CSCW. There is also a growing interest in exploring more nuanced presentations of identity afforded in emerging online social spaces that have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, we endeavor to contribute towards this research agenda in yet another new media context -- live streaming -- by analyzing female and LGBTQ streamers’ practices to present and manage their gender identity and sexual identity. Our findings highlight streamers’ gender representation and sexual representation as a demonstration of controlling their own bodies, an awareness of the audiences and the resistance to their expectations, and an exhibition of the affordances and power structure of the specific online social space. We extend existing studies on live streaming by exploring the understudied gender identity and sexual identity aspect of the streaming practices. We also highlight the less audience/performance-oriented but more self-driven aspect of digital representations and the importance of affirmation and empowerment in this process. We add nuance to the existing HCI/CSCW studies on gender and sexuality by investigating a highly dynamic, interactive, and multilayered self-presentation mechanism emerging in live streaming and point to the need for potential new lenses to analyze technology-supported identity construction.
- Journal Article(Re)Configuring Hybrid Meetings: Moving from User-Centered Design to Meeting-Centered Design(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 6, 2020) Saatçi, Banu; Akyüz, Kaya; Rintel, Sean; Klokmose, Clemens NylandstedDespite sophisticated technologies for representational fidelity in hybrid meetings, in which co-located and remote participants collaborate via video or audio, meetings are still often disrupted by practical problems with trying to include remote participants. In this paper, we use micro-analysis of three disruptive moments in a hybrid meeting from a global software company to unpack blended technological and conversational practices of inclusion and exclusion. We argue that designing truly valuable experiences for hybrid meetings requires moving from the traditional, essentialist, and perception-obsessed user-centered design approach to a phenomenological approach to the needs of meetings themselves. We employ the metaphor of ‘configuring the meeting’ to propose that complex ecologies of people, technology, spatial, and institutional organization must be made relevant in the process of design.
- Journal ArticleInfrastructuring Public Consultation in Town Planning— How Town Planners Translate Public Consultation into a Socio-Technical Support System(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 5, 2020) Weise, Sebastian; Chiasson, MikeFor public consultation in town planning, town planners can employ various software systems to improve the dialogue with citizens. This article looks at attempts to do so by following the work of a team of municipal town planners across four stages of public consultation held between 2012 and 2015. The study is based on detailed semi-structured interviews, field notes from regular visits to the planners’ office, and a database of public consultation comments and attendance at consultation events across the stages. Using an approach that considers planners’ work in the selection and implementation of software within institutional objectives and constraints as “infrastructure” work, we examine the joint deployment, use and effects of nine software tools and arising practices for public consultations. Our findings demonstrate how the infrastructure work of planners involved numerous interpretations about the possibilities for software adaptation and the effects of software use, which were enabled and constrained by consultation and planning requirements. The results also indicate a role for researchers in helping planners mediate between formal processes and public concerns, and illustrates how this technological-institutional struggle in infrastructuring work forms an essential part of town planners’ practice.
- Journal ArticleChanging Categorical Work in Healthcare: the Use of Patient-Generated Health Data in Cancer Rehabilitation(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 5, 2020) Cerna, Katerina; Grisot, Miria; Islind, Anna Sigridur; Lindroth, Tomas; Lundin, Johan; Steineck, GunnarCategorical work in chronic care is increasingly dependent on digital technologies for remote patient care. However, remote care takes many forms and while various types of digital technologies are currently being used, we lack a nuanced understanding of how to design such technologies for specific novel usages. In this paper, we focus on digital technologies for patient-generated health data and how their use changes categorical work in chronic care. Our aim is to understand how categorical work changes, which novel forms of categorical work emerge and what the implications are for the care relation. This paper is based on an ethnographic study of healthcare professionals’ work at a pelvic cancer rehabilitation clinic and their interactions with patients. In this setting, supportive talks between patients and nurses are central. To understand the complexities of categorical work in chronic care when patient-generated health data are introduced, we contrast the traditional supportive talks with supportive talks where the nurses had access to the patients’ patient-generated health data. We identify and analyze challenges connected to novel forms of categorical work. Specifically, we focus on categorical work and how it can undergo changes. Our empirical findings show how changes occur in the way patients’ lived experience of the chronic disease aligns with the categories from chronic care, as well as in the way the nurse works with clinical categories during the talk. These insights help us further understand the implications of patient generated-data use in supportive talks. We contribute to an improved understanding of the use of patient-generated health data in clinical practice and based on this, we identify design implications for how to make categorical work more collaborative.
- Journal ArticleAchieving Accuracy through Ambiguity: the Interactivity of Risk Communication in Severe Weather Events(Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): Vol. 29, No. 5, 2020) Bica, Melissa; Weinberg, Joy; Palen, LeysiaRisks associated with natural hazards such as hurricanes are increasingly communicated on social media. For hurricane risk communication, visual information products—graphics—generated by meteorologists and scientists at weather agencies portray forecasts and atmospheric conditions and are offered to parsimoniously convey predictions of severe storms. This research considers risk interactivity by examining a particular hurricane graphic which has shown in previous research to have a distinctive diffusion signature: the ‘spaghetti plot’, which contains multiple discrete lines depicting a storm’s possible path. We first analyzed a large dataset of microblog interactions around spaghetti plots between members of the public and authoritative weather sources within the US during the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season. We then conducted interviews with a sample of the weather authorities after preliminary findings sketched the role that experts have in such communications. Findings describe how people make sense of risk dialogically over graphics, and show the presence of a fundamental tension in risk communication between accuracy and ambiguity . The interactive effort combats the unintended declarative quality of the graphical risk representation through communicative acts that maintain a hazard’s inherent ambiguity until risk can be foreclosed. We consider theoretical and practice-based implications of the limits and potentials of graphical risk representations and of widely diffused scientific communication, and offer reasons we need CSCW attention paid to the larger enterprise of risk communication.