- Conference PaperThe potential of a digital twin to design computational coordination mechanisms. The case of the French railway infrastructure(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Stalder, Corentin; Lewkowicz, Myriam; Ducellier, GuillaumeThe digital twin is a key technology of Industry 4.0. It offers a digital replica of a physical system. As part of research work with SNCF Réseau, we have sought to explore the role the digital twin can play to support coordination mechanisms. We conducted a multi- sited ethnography, which allowed us to define a technology probe to explore our research question in-situ. This exploratory work shows that the digital twin enables the rapid design of computational coordination mechanisms. Furthermore, we raise the point that a digital twin can bind descriptive information about the physical system and information used in coordination practices to move towards effortless coordination.
- Conference PaperThe Role of Boundary Objects in Platformization Practices: A Case Study of Software Testing(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Ringdal, Nora O.; Farshchian, Babak A.While digital platforms are frequently investigated at technical, societal, and organizational levels, there are relatively few empirical studies of the collaborative practices that are involved when platforms are introduced into organizations. In this paper, we investigate such practices in the context of a large-scale platformization project within healthcare. Because off-the-shelf platforms already possess a stable core, platformization processes often focus on downstream system development activities such as configuration and testing. Our case study is about one such downstream activity, i.e., that of software testing. We frame software testing as a sociotechnical process involving tacit knowledge from a variety of user groups. We use the theoretical framework of boundary objects to demonstrate how test artifacts – mainly the test versions of the product – function as boundary objects, used to transfer knowledge among platform developers, those who configure the platform, and future users of the platform. Our findings show when and how boundary objects function or break down. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings both with respect to the boundary objects themselves, and the practices that surround boundary objects to support their collaborative properties.
- Conference PaperConnectedness in mobile families(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Glöss, MareikeFamily life is no longer confined to geographically shared spaces. More often, families are separated. T echnology offers countless means of keeping families connected, which has been subject of extensive research. Yet, connection between families goes beyond interpersonal communication. Being separated from extended family means to be separated from familiar rituals, habits, and values. In this paper we present an ethnographic study of mobile families to understand how families are dealing with this kind of separation in their everyday life. We analyze situated practices and discuss how these families create a sense of connectedness to their country of origin. Our observations show that design for connectedness should address practices and materialities that are part of the family home. Furthermore, we argue that there should be more consideration for what the family connects to: Instead of connecting between people, connectedness can also be seen as staying in touch with familiar routines, customs, and environments.
- Conference PaperTravelling Artefacts: Lessons Learned from Interventions in a Regional Innovation Ecosystem(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Krüger, Max; Gerbracht, Marc; Vitt, Nico; Kudic, Muhamed; Ahmadi, Michael; Boden, Alexander; Offergeld, Felicitas; Stein, Martin; Kotthaus, Christoph; Unbehaun, David; Wulf, VolkerRegions and their innovation ecosystems have increasingly become of interest to CSCW research as the context in which work, research and design takes place. Our study adds to this growing discourse, by providing preliminary data and reflections from an ongoing attempt to intervene and support a regional innovation ecosystem. We report on the benefits and shortcomings of a practice-oriented approach in such regional projects and highlight the importance of relations and the notion of spillover. Lastly, we discuss methodological and pragmatic hurdles that CSCW research needs to overcome in order to support regional innovation ecosystems successfully.
- Conference PaperToward an AI-assisted Assessment Tool to Support Online Art Therapy Practices: A Pilot Study(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Seo, Woosuk; Jun, Joonyoung; Chun, Minki; Jeong, Hyeonhak; Na, Sungmin; Cho, Woohyun; Kim, Saeri; Jung, HyungguArtificial intelligence (AI) has been widely used to assist art therapists with artwork assessments by providing objective information. While prior studies showed that AI- assisted tools are feasible to improve drawing analysis in in-person art therapy practices, the use of those tools in online art therapy is still under-examined. To fill the gap, we created a prototype of an AI-assisted tool for online therapy in a House-Tree-Person (HTP) test scenario and ran lab-based usability sessions with 10 art therapists in which they used our proposed prototype to complete predefined tasks. We then conducted semi-structured interviews with the participants to understand their acceptance and concerns about the prototype. The findings revealed the unique needs of art therapists and opportunities of using AI-assisted tools to improve online art therapy practices. Based on these findings, we suggest implications for creating AI-assisted tools that meet specific needs of art therapists in online therapy sessions, and further discuss future directions of research about AI- assisted tools for art therapists in online settings.
- Conference PaperBlending Practices to Facilitate Grounded Design Research: A Praxeological Research Perspective(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Syed, Hussain Abid; Schorch, Marén; Pinatti de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano; Rutz, Philipp; Pipek, VolkmarIn this paper, we reflect on the experiences from two Grounded Design (GD) research projects conducted by a multidisciplinary group of researchers between 2019 – 2021 and highlight the methodological foundations and related obstacles for iterative designing. Both projects investigate the phenomena of knowledge sharing and crisis-related learning in business organizations under the GD paradigm, which has been increasingly adopted within the Computer- supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) community. During these projects, the researchers with backgrounds in computer science, business informatics, software engineering, and sociology experienced the need for systematization to transition between the stages of GD. Looking back, we realize that our teams arrived at this systematization by blending the prior knowledge from team members’ original educational backgrounds. While blending practices most likely happens intuitively in interdisciplinary projects, as is often the case of the user-centered design initiatives seen in CSCW and Human-Computer Interaction, little can be found on how this usually happens and its implications. In this paper, we respond to this literature gap by discussing how this blending can facilitate the realization of GD projects and lead to a praxeological information science research perspective, which has ‘methods appropriation’ as key to systematizing abstraction, broader traceability, and flexibility of research methods.
- Conference PaperRedesigning systems for Single-Pilot Operations: the mutual awareness problem for remote crews(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Bardou, Maxime; Letondal, Catherine; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Causse, Mickaël; Bidegaimberry, Maxence; Dubus, Romane; Marcon, CécileCurrently, flight safety is ensured by the collaboration of at least two pilots in the cockpit. Thanks to progress in automation and telecommunication, aircraft manufacturers and aviation companies envision that a single pilot in the cockpit assisted by a pilot on the ground (i.e Single-Pilot Operation) could ensure flight operations while requiring less human resources. However, without appropriate collaboration tools, this situation of remote collaboration may lead to a degradation of the awareness of actions and attitudes between the two pilots (i.e. mutual awareness). In this paper, we propose to enrich the understanding of the remote collaboration problems of two pilots through a fine-grained analysis of mutual awareness needs. First, we describe awareness frameworks from the literature. Second, we identify awareness issues during a case study involving a crew of pilots in two distant flight simulators. Third, we refine the relevant awareness concepts through exploratory prototyping of collaborative tools. These prototypes are based on three scenarios involving specific awareness requirements including 1) visualizing the physiological state of the pilot on board during a non stabilized approach, 2) an emergency decision making, and 3) global awareness during a whole flight for a better efficiency of the ground assistant operator at the arrival. In this article our contribution is a refined study of the awareness needs adapted to the context of remote collaborative piloting, with the final objective of designing more appropriate tools.
- Conference PaperShall I describe it or shall I move closer? Verbal references and locomotion in VR collaborative search tasks.(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Bovo, Riccardo; Giunchi, Daniele; Costanza, Enrico; Steed, Anthony; Heinis, ThomasResearch in pointing-based communication within immersive collaborative virtual environments (ICVE) remains a compelling area of study. Previous studies explored techniques to improve accuracy and reduce errors when hand-pointing from a distance. In this study, we explore how users adapt their behaviour to cope with the lack of accuracy during pointing. In an ICVE where users can move (i.e., locomotion) when faced with a lack of laser pointers, pointing inaccuracy can be avoided by getting closer to the object of interest. Alternatively, collaborators can enrich the utterances with details to compensate for the lack of pointing precision. Inspired by previous CSCW remote desktop collaboration, we measure visual coordination, the implicitness of deixis’ utterances and the amount of locomotion. We design an experiment that compares the effects of the presence/absence of laser pointers across hard/easy-to-describe referents. Results show that when users face pointing inaccuracy, they prefer to move closer to the referent rather than enrich the verbal reference.
- Conference PaperToward Trauma-Informed Design of Behavioral Interventions: A Case Study on Classroom Management(Proceedings of 20th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 2022) Marcu, GabrielaTrauma theory can complement behavior change theory in the design of digital interventions by providing different insights into the social and contextual factors that influence a person’s behavior. Two thirds of the population in the U.S. and Europe have experienced at least one traumatic event in their lives, and trauma can have lasting effects on an individual’s functioning and behavior. A trauma-informed approach to design recognizes the prevalence of trauma and considers its potential effects on an individual, to shape interactions that more effectively meet their needs. To illustrate how trauma- informed design can enhance a human-centered design process, I present a case study of a long-term project that resulted in the deployment of multiple digital technologies for classroom management. Through a retrospective needs assessment drawing on trauma theory and trauma-informed practices, I identify new possibilities for intervention by reframing children’s behaviors, shifting the focus of intervention to their environment, and addressing structural inequity.